Infertility: Male vs. Female Factors?

When a couple is unable to get pregnant after a year of trying, they could be dealing with infertility. Both partners should see a specialist to uncover the root causes of unexplained infertility. Here are some factors that contribute to male and female infertility:

Male Factors

In males, sperm quality issues, such as low sperm count, poor motility, and sperm with unusual shapes or sizes, contribute to infertility. A fertility doctor performs a semen analysis to identify the reasons for poor sperm health and suggest effective treatment methods, like IVF. Below are more details about the causes of infertility among men:

Sperm Health

Reduced sperm count reduces the likelihood of sperm reaching and fertilizing the egg, leading to difficulties in conceiving. Reduced mobility means the sperm struggle to reach and fertilize the ovum because they can’t move properly. Sperm cells with unusual shapes or sizes may have difficulty penetrating the egg, which makes it harder to achieve pregnancy. Issues that affect sperm health include hormonal imbalance, certain medications, and being exposed to environmental pollutants. IVF is a conception option for couples experiencing sperm health issues.

Hormonal Imbalance

Low testosterone levels interfere with hormonal signals that help the body produce sperm. Chronic illnesses like kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, or HIV/AIDS can disrupt hormone regulation. As men get older, testosterone production reduces naturally. A fertility specialist may suggest testosterone replacement therapy to restore hormone levels.

Ejaculatory Issues

Ejaculation problems occur when semen goes backward into the bladder instead of coming out through the urethra. The main symptom of this disorder is little to no semen coming out during ejection. Backward ejaculation lowers fertility because sperm doesn’t reach the woman’s reproductive tract. If natural conception isn’t possible, sperm is retrieved after release and used for intrauterine insemination.

Female Factors

Ovulation problems and endometriosis are some of the leading causes of unexplained infertility among women. To manage such issues, consult a fertility doctor who determines the underlying causes and suggests potential treatment options. Here is more information about factors that reduce the chances of conceiving in females:

Ovulation Issues

Without the normal ovulation process, the reproductive system can’t release mature eggs to be fertilized. An imbalance in reproductive hormones may result in irregular or no menstruation. This problem leads to infertility due to the reduced quantity and quality of eggs available for ovulation and fertilization. To manage ovulation issues, a professional may prescribe medications to stimulate egg development. IVF is a treatment option that involves retrieving mature eggs and fertilizing them outside of the womb. 


Endometriosis may cause tissue to grow on the fallopian tubes, resulting in inflammation and blockages, preventing the egg from getting fertilized or transported to the uterus. During menstruation, women with endometriosis experience heavy bleeding and intense pain around the pelvic area. Pelvic inflammation creates an unfavorable environment for implanting a fertilized egg. Laparoscopy is suitable for removing endometrial tissue implants, adhesions, or cysts, improving fertility outcomes. Some women might suffer from silent endometriosis, which doesn’t come with noticeable signs but may be detected by fertility testing. 


As women age, the number of remaining eggs decreases, lowering fertility. Aging also comes with changes in hormonal levels that affect ovulation and menstrual cycles. Maintaining a balanced diet, achieving a healthy weight, and managing stress help improve fertility results. Egg donation can assist women with poor egg quality or quantity in becoming mothers. For those who want to preserve their eggs for future use, egg freezing is a suitable option. 

Get Tested for Unexplained Infertility

Couples having a difficult time conceiving can visit a fertility specialist to identify underlying factors. Early intervention may improve the chances of achieving a successful pregnancy. Call a reputable fertility clinic today to schedule an appointment with a specialist and get tested for unexplained infertility. 

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